Neuroendocrine tumor

This type of cancer tumors called neuroendocrine tumors, it represents a set of transformed malignancy of neuroendocrine cells. They occur in almost all organs of the body. A distinctive feature is the ability to produce hormones, hormone-like components, in connection with which this tumor is also called hormonesecreting.

Neuroendocrine tumor rarely recorded among all oncological pathologies. In most cases, affects the digestive tract, respiratory system, ovaries in women. However, it is possible the identification of neuroendocrine cells and in other systems.

Noted that the male part of the population suffers from the disease much more often the fairer sex.

What is the danger of neuroendocrine tumors?

Statistics show that the prevalence of diseases is 3 people among 100 thousand population. However, it should be noted that at autopsy (autopsy) the disease is diagnosed 3 times more often. This is due to low detectability in life. Often people do not pay attention to the symptoms, postponing the visit to the doctor, which ultimately leads to late diagnosis or death from complications.

The danger is carcinoid crisis, developing on the background of stress, biopsy, surgery. Symptomatically manifested by tachycardia, severe bronchospasm.

The reasons for the development

The emergence of neoplastic growths is considered to be a consequence of the development of several genetically determined syndromes, which are based on the appearance of a plurality of neuroendocrine tumors of different locations.

Types and classification

Depending on localization distinguish:

  1. neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract, which in turn are divided into benign, low-, vysokomehanizirovannoe tumors;
  2. lose glands (medullary cancer of thyroid gland, a tumor of the parathyroid, adrenal glands, pituitary gland);
  3. lung tumor;
  4. carcinoma, Merkel (lose the skin);
  5. other localization (prostate, thymus gland, Breasts, kidneys, ovaries).

Symptoms

In the digestive tract most frequently onlooker is located in the Appendix, a thin part of the intestine.

Neuroendocrine cancer carcinoid syndrome manifests itself, in particular:

  • diarrhea;
  • pain;
  • sensations of heat;
  • tachycardia;
  • redness of the upper body;
  • dizziness;
  • hypotension.

Sometimes observed:

  • sleep disturbance;
  • malaise;
  • aggressiveness;
  • neuritis;
  • dermatitis;
  • cognitive impairment.

For insulinoma, gastrinoma, vipoma characteristic clinical symptom, which is manifested dysfunction of the organ where the tumor is localized.

Treatment

Treatment in most cases begins in the later stages. This suggests the hidden symptoms, the low prevalence of disease. For diagnosis are assigned:

  1. laboratory blood tests to determine hormone levels, tumor markers, and biologically active substances;
  2. a urine test for the detection of a derivative of serotonin – 5-OIC;
  3. tissue biopsy with histological analysis;
  4. ultrasound examination;
  5. computer, magnetic resonance imaging;
  6. scintigraphy.

The therapy uses several techniques. Among them:

Surgery:

Occurs when operability of the tumor, when cancer is not spread to vital organs, the structure, the size of the outbreak is not so great, and metastases are absent.

Chemotherapy:

Used in combination with other techniques lies in the introduction of special funds that suppress the growth of tumors and preventing the spread of cancer cells throughout the body. One only has to notice that in addition to malignant tissue affects the healthy that require a long recovery period after chemotherapy.

Radiation exposure:

Allows you to destroy transformed cells, to reduce the amount of ekoobrazovanie, slow the progression of disease.

Targeted therapy:

Is the use of special substances which selectively destroy malignant cells, binding to their receptors. In this case, healthy tissue is not affected, so the person feels good, does not require the reconstruction of the course.

The sympathetic treatment:

Includes prescription of medicines, urugauy heart rate, reduce blood pressure, reduce flatulence and pain.

Forecast

The prognosis depends on the stage of malignancy, presence of metastases, comorbidities, and patient age. In endocrine carcinoma a five-year period crossed 50% of patients. In the case of carcinoid syndrome, this figure is reduced to 35-42% in the absence of metastatic foci in gastrinoma – is 51%, with metastases is 30%.

If neuroendocrine tumor in glucagonoma, the prognosis is poor, however, really say about the five-year survival rate is not possible, because there is no data to make a conclusion. This type of ekoobrazovanie is extremely rare.